In Islam, the revelation came to Prophet Mohammed when he was approaching 40 years of age. In Christianity, it is believed that Jesus Christ begun his public Ministry while he was thirty years of age. In the Jewish custom, it was Moses who was handed over the Torah to bring to the community of Israel. In Islam and Christianity, both hold the fact that Jesus and Muhammad had a long period of meditation before they finally begun their public mission. The scene is different for Moses who all along was with the people of Israel.
It is however, important to note that Moses also encountered a vision in the form of the burning Bush. We see a scene that is similar on the three, Islam, Christianity and Judaism. In the three occasions, Muhammad, Jesus and Moses went into solitude with God to gain spiritual insight. Revelation in Islam was in the form of the Quran, prescribed to Prophet Muhammad. Christians on the other hand draw their strength from the Gospels and the Jews depend on the Torah for daily guidance.
Introduction of Islam in Arabia and Opposition
It was after a series of meditation expanding several weeks that the prophet decided to spread the message of Quran. The first converts in the Arabian land were his wife, Khadija, his ten year old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, adopted son Zaid and close friend Abu Bakr. Few members of the Arabian world responded to his message contained in the Quran. Majority, however, ignored his proclamation.
In his introduction of Islam, the Prophet condemned the idol worships that majority of the Arab world was involved in. The preaching was also characterized with sharp criticism of the forefathers who were practicing polytheism. This led to an opposition against eth prophet in Mecca and the people did not want to hear anything about his new found religion. Despite the followers increasing in number, the prophet was singled out as a threat by the local rulers and they viewed him as part of a plot to overthrow the kingdom. The Prophet refused to several request of denouncing the Islamic Religion and pursued it whole heartedly.
Lecture Notes. (8th March 2010). Muslim, Jew Violence.
Lecture Notes. (2011). Hadith: Sayings and Stories of the Prophet.
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Igneous Rocks (38 points)
_________Extrusive________ igneous rock.
surrounded by smaller grains that can’t be seen with the naked eye is called aphanitic
will cease to move resulting in the deposition of a
silicic, mafic, intermediate, ultramafic
__volcanic ash________ material?
Reaction Series to form is
material, and that the large crystals are visible with the naked eye. Please fill in the missinglabels for the names of each of these two types of materials (2 points)
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To My Darling Mother,
The greatest gift and the biggest advantage I had while growing up was you, mother. I love you and always will. It was the greatest privilege that God gave me in my life. Every moment I pray, I thank him for your presence. I am proud to be a responsible person today as a result of the values and confidence you instilled in me. Growing up in your midst was a privilege like no other and you shaped me into a person many desire to become. I am proud of you mum. As I grew up, you made me believe in anything I wanted to become, and you were always eager to give a helping hand towards this cause.
I promise to live to the commands of respecting God, a virtue you taught me as I grew up. You were my first teacher who taught me that appreciating the world was part of success. I am always ready to take a challenge in life reflecting that you are near to give me the needed advice. I promise to be there for you in all circumstance you go through because you taught me so. If there is any precious gift in the world today apart from God, then it is you. If there is anything else to dispute this claim, please show me. Please show me the untiring mother who still seeks to know the condition of her child. The mom who went for days without food to ensure her child received effective education and affordable healthcare. There is no other mom in the world like you.
In your dark moments, I will be beside you, for you never gave up on me in my childhood turmoil. Was it not you that had hope for me when I had lost hope of ever getting well again? Yes, it was you who encouraged me not to give up on life. Despite the failing health condition, you never took rest to console yourself but you went to the extremes for me. I love you mum and I thank you for a million things. I pray the good Lord to grant me the strength to reciprocate all the good things you did for me. Words can never express the gratitude and care I have deep within me towards you. You are one in a million, a shining star in my midst. God bless you mum.
Soames, M. (2001). Winston and Clementine: The Personal Letters of the Churchills. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
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Trauma can be defined as the mechanical damage experienced in the body and which is a result of an external force. A patient that experiences trauma is therefore characterized as an individual in need of treatment and timely diagnosis of the potential injuries through a team of health professionals. The multidisciplinary team involved is supported by resources so as to eradicate the risk of contacting permanent disability or even death. The analysis below is going to provide an overview of the concepts of trauma and resilience (Wilson et al 2007). It will also bring to the fore the impact that trauma can have on peace making activities as well as we can make peace through understanding issues related to trauma.
Research indicates that Trauma is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Patients between ages 1 and 44 are known to die as a result of trauma related incidents. In understanding the concepts of trauma, we can be well positioned to appreciate what a patient is growing through. Furthermore, other survivors of trauma take quite a long time to heal in the society. People take a long time before they can fully recover from trauma, and this is known to have a negative impact to the success of the society (Elworthy et al 2006). Trauma is an experience which can be emotionally painful for those who under go it.
It’s imperative to note that trauma can result in lasting mental as well as physical effects. Furthermore, trauma is characterized by an event which can be at times repetitive and a response or reaction that involves an overwhelming experience of being powerless and helpless (Connor 2006). AS will be discussed below, traumatic event can eventually lead an individual to experience a complex post traumatic stress disorder also known as (PTSD). Research further indicates that recent acute traumatic event is most likely to result in simple PTSD.
Concepts of Trauma
Trauma, as have been outlined above, is an experience of personal violation on personal safety on a person close. If an individual experiences trauma, he or she may lead to a continued emotional, psychological, physical as well as spiritual impacts on an individual and in the long term, their relationship. Post Traumatic Stress disorders results when the symptoms take tale after a period of experiencing stress (Baldwin 2011). It is important to understand that trauma can occur to good people as well as those who claim to be competent. Furthermore, people who have good health can also experience traumatic stress. Several people are known to experience both the short term as well as long lasting problems which is as a result to exposure to trauma. A person may be in a position of becoming less fearful when they understand the symptoms associated with trauma (Feliciano et al 2008). People develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) if they have been exposed to severe traumatic situation.
PTSD can be classified as a kind of disorder resulting from anxiety. The person can be prevailed upon by aversive anxiety-related experiences, physiological responses as well as behaviors that are generated after exposure to a psychologically traumatic experience. The symptoms associated with trauma can be adaptive, and one can be able to recognize it through its evolution and hence one can be able to avoid a disastrous outcome. It is true, however, that not everyone who undergoes traumatic experience can be poised to develop PTSD (Lederach 2002). Some of the traumas experienced may be as a result of betrayal, fear and may to a great extent involve feelings relating to helplessness. When one experiences trauma as a result of betrayal, a situation of psychogenic amnesia may develop.
Post traumatic Stress Disorder is basically the most common diagnostic category employed so as to evaluate the symptoms uplifted from emotionally traumatic experience. The disorder is characterized by an event that has been triggered by death threats or an incurred injury and as a result, fear, horror and a state of helplessness was realized (Prince et al 2004). A diagnostic criterion should be carried out if the symptoms of fear, horror and helplessness continue to persist for more than a month after the incident.
There are three main dimensions realized in PTSD as the symptoms are taken into account. They include Avoidance in which case the patient tries to minimize exposure to things and close members that may generate their intrusive symptoms. Intrusion is the second symptoms noted and includes nightmares or flashback where the traumatic event is called back to mind. The third symptom includes Hyperarousal where there might be increased arousal like increased startle and hyper vigilance (Van der Kolk 1987). The criterion associated with majority of Americans can be depicted in the Diagnostic as well as statistical manual of mental disorders or the DSM.
Physical reactions to trauma might include:
Cognitive reactions to trauma comprises of:
Emotional reaction to trauma might also include:
The Cost of Trauma
The impact seen as a result of experiencing a traumatic event can be both pervasive as well as being destructive to the lives of individuals lives, communities, their respective families and by large the nation. We cannot be in a position to fully estimate the valued cost in unresolved trauma to the society (Paulson 2009). Trauma on the other hand has been characterized with physical as well as mental illness, learning, disabilities and even religious intolerance and violence in individuals and the nation.
Psychological trauma: PTSD can be stated as being caused by physical trauma or the psychological trauma, and in most cases, can be a combination of the two elements. PTSD can further be caused by individuals in incidents like rape cases, terrorist attack or war. Sources of trauma can be attributed by observing an assault during the childhood days or even an adult experience of sexual assault (Burg 2008). The symptoms related to PTSD may thrive in an environment experiencing violent assault, sexual assault, torture, hostage, and violent automobile accident or one being informed that you have to undergo a life threatening diagnosis. Children on the other hand may be subjected to PTSD symptoms as a result of bullying or mobbing. The diagram below shows a perfect example of an individual undergoing eth cruelty of the police force (Brown et al 2006). This is an act that remains vivid in the minds of several people.
Neuroendocrinology: Symptoms depicted by PTSD can be as a result of traumatic events which eventually causes an over active response of the adrenaline. The response later causes deep neurological patterns in the functioning of the brain. Neurological patterns can on the other hand last for sometime after the incident has passed on and the individual can be left hyper responsive to fearful situations in the future (Connor 2006). PTSD is characterized by biochemical changes in the brain as well as the body which are different from other psychiatric disorders like major depression. Dexamethasone suppression test response can be stronger in individuals who have been diagnosed with PTSD unlike in those who have been diagnosed with clinical depression.
Furthermore, individuals who have PTSD depict a low secretion of cortisol as well as high secretion of catecholamines in the urine. The ratio of cortisol/norepinephrine is higher than comparable to individual who are non-diagnosed. There is low level of Brain catecholamine and high concentration of corticotrophin relating factor (CRF). The evaluation above suggests abnormality in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (Caruth 1995). Consequently, abnormalities can be noted on strong negative feedback as a result of the strong cortisol suppression to dexamethasone.
Neuroanatomy: PTSD may give rise to the alteration of three parts of the brain. This includes the prefrontal cortex, amygdale as well as the hippocampus. In human studies, the amygdale is known to be strongly associated with the formation of emotional memories and more so the fear related memories (Flint et al 2007). The amygdalocentric model relating PTSD suggests its association with the hyperarousal of the amygdale and insufficient top down control by the medical prefrontal cortex as well as the hippocampus and more so during the process of extinction.
Diagnosis of PTSD
Exposure to a traumatic event: It is vital to have exposure so as to have a loss of physical integrity or can even risk a death penalty to an individual or to other people. It should also act as a response to a given event that aroused fear and state of helplessness in a person.
Persistent re-experiencing: For instance, flashback memories must be present in a victim who might be characterized with recurring distressing dreams, subjective of the traumatic events or even intense negative psychological response to a given subject of the apparent event order.
Persistent avoidance and emotional numbing: In this sector, there is avoidance of stimuli which can be linked to the trauma which envisions the feelings and thoughts, narrating on the events. It also entails avoiding certain behaviors, places, or people who might lead to distressing recall of the memories (Garland 2000). Furthermore, it is christened with inability of recalling major events that occurred in trauma or the limited participation in fundamental activities of life.
Consequently, Trauma is treatable and at the same time preventable. The society should initiate a project that aims at creating awareness and the effective treatment should be fundamental to the societal undertakings. Furthermore, Trauma is a psycho-biological event as it impacts on the body and deserves to be treated at all the given levels.
Assessment of Resilience in the Aftermath of Trauma
The symptoms associated with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are known to account for considerable morbidity as well as mortality. It is therefore important to deploy tools that will assess various components of the situation. This is the basis upon which it is inevitable to avoid psychological resilience. Resilience is therefore a fundamental factor deployed towards assessing healthy as well as pathological adjustment after a traumatic experience (Henderson 2009). Stress coping ability can therefore be termed as the resilience exercise. In this situation, it is important to evaluate personal qualities which allow individuals as well as the society to grow and record positive trend in the wake of adversity.
There are different characteristics that are associated with resilience and which includes internal locus of control, strong sense of commitment to self, a sense of meaningfulness, the ability to view changes and stress as a challenge and engaging the support of others. It also involves securing attachment to others, collective or even personal objectives, self efficacy, sense of humor, strong self esteem, action oriented approach and the ability to strengthen effect of stress. Resilience also leads to the development of patience, tolerance to negative affect, faith and optimism (ITHI 2004). However, resilience is a trend that gradually develops with the lapse of time. For instance, people with a greater hardiness also exhibit an internal locus of control. It is also important to note that several resilient individuals assert that stress can have a strengthening effect and so they will be ready to quickly adopt to change. Individuals in resilience employ positive emotions so as to recover from the negative emotional experiences. In examining resilience in trauma, we ought to look into the strengths as well as positive attributes rather than on the weakness realized (McGrath 2009). These may hence encourage an individual in undertaking more adaptive undertakings.
Measuring Resilience in Patients with PTSD
In analysis of responses posed with trauma, it is imperative to include the study of resilience as well as health. The CD-RISC can therefore be used in measuring various aspects related to resilience in patients as well as with the PTSD. Furthermore, the Stress Vulnerability Scale (SVS) is used in measuring the degree of perceived distress aligning with the daily stress or setbacks (Wilson et al 2007). The CD-RISC and SVS are not difficult in their usage and can even be used to individuals who are not faced with specialized mental health training for they can be taught to administer the self rated scales in the field.
The CD-RISC is a brief, self rated questionnaire which is used to quantify resilience hence establishes reference values as well as evaluating the clinical effects of pharmacologic treatment on resilience. The diagram below shows the effects of pharmacotheraphy plus the CBT on resilience in US patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
(Elworthy et al 2006)
The main objective in treating patients with PTSD is to alleviate the fundamental symptoms of the disorders, stabilize resilience, improve the normal functioning and in the long run achieve remission. An individual can be able to cope with prevailing stress while at the same time adapt in the aftermath of the tragic event. Resilience can therefore be considered as an important part for mental health (Feliciano et al 2008). It is however not easy to evaluate the concepts of resilience due to the fact that it can’t be reduced to any one single construct.
Hardiness: The personality trait of hardiness in an individual helps to buffer exposure to emerging stress. Hardiness can be seen as comprising three major dimensions which are being committed in finding happiness in life, the notion that an individual has the power to positively influence the environment within which one is and the subsequent outcomes of the event. Based on the description given above, one notes that hardy individuals have been able to appraise potentially stressful situation as being les threatening (Caruth 1995). They are therefore likely to minimize the occurrence of distress; they are also more confident and better equipped in using active coping as well as the social support. The elements help them be able to tackle distress that comes along their way.
Self Enhancement: This is another dimension which can be linked to resilience in trauma. At the of formalizing the PTSD, social psychologists had begun challenging the traditional assumption that mental health entails realistic acceptance of personal limitations as well as negative characteristics. Self enhancement had proved vital for individuals who have been bereaved and who are suffering from severe losses. Self Enhancers are characterized by being able to adjust properly and they have well and active social networks (Lederach 1997). They are therefore rated as being more positive and can be adjusted by their closest friends.
Repressive Coping: Resilience to trauma has been reported among the repressive coopers. Research has indicated that the given type of people tend to avoid an environment of unpleasant thoughts, emotions and memories. Repressive coping appears to be operating through their emotions focused mechanism like the emotional dissociation. Emotional dissociation can be described as being maladaptive and can be linked with long term health costs (Henderson, 2009). The same characteristics may also be associated with fostering adaptation to extreme adversity.
Positive Emotion and Laughter: One of the methods through which repressors and others tend to cope in eth face of adversity is through the deportment of positive emotion and thought. Being in possession of positive emotions may entails one to minimize the levels of distress following aversive events as a result of quieting or even undoing the negative emotions. People who show genuine laughs and smiles at being bereaved can be well positioned to adjust over several years of bereavement.
Impact of Trauma
Depression: Sorrow and grief are normal encounter after an experience related to trauma. Furthermore, people are known to develop negative thoughts about themselves. This shows how it may not be easy to negotiate for peace when an individual has no inner peace and harbors negative thought about other people as well as the world in general. The feelings and thoughts are known to be boosted as a result of people getting oriented to the traumatic experience. People are different the world over and others may have the feeling of trauma persist for a long time and hence they cannot be well placed to participate in the peace making process (Brown et al 2006). These people tend to reflect back on the incident and hence affect their level of participation and association.
These people will in the long run develop an environment where they feel oppressed and are deeply depressed. It is advisable that they be subjected to a doctor or a health practitioner so as to receive some help. The signs depicted as a result of depression are little or no interest in pleasure and normal activities. The individuals are at times tearful, they feel low and miserable, tired all the time, they experience changes in their appetite, sleep or weight, and they feel worthless, helpless and hopeless. To a larger extent, they harbor suicidal thoughts in them as well as having poor concentration (Spiers 2002). It is therefore important to state that such an environment with the above named factors may not be easy to negotiate for peace making activities.
Depression is known to be a hindrance and developing daily activities. One will be restricted on seeing friends, going to work and even getting out of bed. As a result carrying out these activities may prove costly to them and also difficult to undertake. Depression will also be an obstacle for people wishing to get through their traumatic experience. In order to improve peace making process, we can assign the victim to a mental health professional who will journey with him or her so as to enable them come back to their senses.
Anxiety: Several people are known to experience anxiety and fear during the time of traumatic event and even after the perceived incident. Individuals in such a scenario may be characterized by the feeling of being stressed up, on edge and even terrified. It will therefore not be easy to negotiate for peace when people feel disoriented and look at things as being unreal. People who have these given disorders experience a racing heart, sweating, shaking, trembling and dizziness while others feel nausea and the feeling of nausea (Paulson 2009). The affected persons are also going to experience some difficulty in breathing.
Risky alcohol and drug use: In order to get rid of the emotional pain as a result of the distress, people tend to use alcohol and drugs. Individuals view that consumption of alcohol as well as drugs may assist in blocking out the painful memories in the short term basis not knowing that they are interfering with the recovery process.
Difficulties with relationship, work and daily life: Traumatic events can lead to mental health problems which can have a significant impact on the family, social as well as work life. The distress realized is likely going to affect the way in which people interact with others. The situation can be seen as taking different forms like the withdrawal from social and family activities. Individuals are also seen as being poised with difficulties to express their emotions. It will not be easy trying to control people who have anger and can give rise to serious as well as negative consequences (Vartuli et al 2011). Reporting back to work may also not be quite easy to someone who has just been through a traumatic event. It can also be attributed by calling the help of a medical practitioner so as to provide information on where they can get practical support and rehabilitation if there is need for that.
Trauma impacts directly upon the victims of terror as well as their families and friends. But the viewers of televised terror are also vulnerable to secondhand trauma; For instance, there is a cumulative stress from the on and off experience to the attack by the terrorist attacks that influences the collective nervous system of a being. Traumatic environment have also the characteristic of awakening old traumas and activating dormant symptoms (Burg 2008). The effects of trauma are often not immediately apparent.
Trauma and Peace Building
One of the ways that has emerged with an aim of preventing and responding to the conflicts brought about by trauma is peace building. Peace making can hence be characterized by the process that drives the establishment of long lasting peace as well as trying to prevent the recurrence of violence (Bonano 2004). This is done through efforts that tackle the exact cause of violence in the society and its effects by reconciliation, institution building, economic and political transformation.
Peace making activities that are deployed after trauma can be broken down into two main types. The first one is intended to make focus on the structural sources of conflict, in this case focuses on the governmental and economic institutions and their reformation. The second part of the peace activities deals with improving the relations between groups that are community based (Connor 2006). Trauma may have an impact on peace building activity in several ways. Some of these ways may include the following:
In recent times, professionals have started evaluating concepts involving trauma and conflict. When someone is narrating the incident to a person intended to help, the helper may turn out to be affected. This is termed as the secondary victimization. The person advocating for peace will be influenced by the traumatic nature of the violence and they can be mentally affected by the true scene being mentioned by witnesses. This shows that the peace effort may not come to completion for the hunter may as well turn out to be the hunted in this case, and will derail the peace process (Spiers 2002). Many societies are subjected to traumatic events but not all of the members are affected by PTSD. Peace making initiative is based on the concept of conflict sensitive environment. For those who have undergone trauma, trying to bridge the gap through peace building may not be effective. Consequently, other people still view their relationship as the chance of their being involved in rape or even murder.
Trauma as improving Peace Making Process
People who have undergone the experience of trauma are well placed to make peace building exercise a success. Some of those who have undergone the ordeal should avoid going to the extremes. Others try to understand that isolation from the rest is likely to yield a positive outcome. Learning to share off with peoples is a positive experience that can boost the peace exercise (Elworthy 2006). Victims should also learn to pay attention to what the inner voice is suggesting. The suggestive voices should not hinder us from associating; on the contrary, they should act as our guiding stone so as not to make mistakes again.
Getting to know one is an experience which can also help an individual to analyze peace initiative. The peace process will be uplifted by an individual getting to understand the parts of his or her body. Sharing information about the people you are getting close to enables someone to build an effective environment for association. By taking care of ones health, one can be able to cope with stress. Coping with aftermath stress enables individuals to take care of themselves through exercise and hence can be able to follow the proceedings of peace making (Feliciano 2008). In order for the victims to be supported, they ought to understand that they have to remain understanding to the whole exercise of peace making.
Strengthening the Traumatized Population
In the case of adults, group work is considered by many as an effective way to strengthen the traumatized population. Most adolescents feel more comfortable when they spend most of their time in groups for they are more comfortable with the peers other than the adults. The group therefore offers an opportunity for the restoration as well as a caring family. The groups are known to consist of understanding peers and emphatic adults. The groups therefore enable the adolescents a supportive group of people who are ready to accompany them in the process of hard times without feeling left alone (Wilson 2007). They are able to freely share the experiences of their ordeal through narrations, an indication that they are opened up and lessened of the pain. The aim of group work also enables victims to interact with their peers hence avoiding withdrawal from others. Group initiatives assist adults to limit arrest of positive development in their lives.
Group activities open an individual to more security and as a result, enable the individual to develop an upright posture and individuation characteristics. Group work therefore enables an individual from trauma to develop a peer relationship. The traumatized find a peaceful environment which facilitates positive growth and the discerning of emotional growth. The group experience opens avenues for sharing through other members who have undergone such experiences. For instance, people who have lost their relatives and friends are able to interact with others who have lost their loved ones through bomb blast or even the 9/11 attack (Prince et al 2004).
In an individual point of view, victims of traumatic experience are able to apologize for their past wrongs and should be sincere from their hearts. A person who feels uncomfortable sharing with other people can as well undertake a personal reflection.
An individual can build on resilience through developing supportive as well a caring relationship at home and among the friends. An individual should therefore accept help as well as effective support and they can be in a position to help other heal from the same incidents. At times it may be hard to accept controlling situations that are beyond the victim’s control. For instance, an individual have to accept the concept that we can’t change everything. An individual should accept the situation and move forward determine not to experience the same heartfelt situation (Vartuli et al 2011). Furthermore accepting change as the constant thing in nature can help strengthen the victims of traumatic conditions. Setting realistic goals is the other concepts that assist individual yearn for positive growth and put trauma behind them.
Sporting activities is the other factor that can uplift an individual to develop a positive view about others and themselves. If an individual was best at football, he or she should be confident towards evaluating their strengths and abilities. In some instances, it is vital for victims to maintain a state of being hopeful and optimistic (Prince et al 2004). Persons ought to look unto their physical and mental health through relaxation and peaceful activities. This brings in the strength as well as balance so as to deal with a difficult decision.
Effective Therapy versus Symptomatic Treatment
In order to ensure that effective therapy has taken place, we ought to realize the characteristic of trauma itself. This will also assist in learning more on how to bring peaceful coexistence between an individual and the community. It is therefore fundamental to accord people who have been subjected to traumatic condition like abuse and even brutalization to have their way out. In order to cultivate an environment of effective healing, one will have to own up their feelings and embrace the self status (Roxworthy 2008). One cannot be able to cultivate peace with the community without first getting to understand himself or herself.
Baldwin, V.D. 2011, Trauma Information Pages, viewed 18th April 2011
Bonanno, A.G. 2004, Loss, Trauma, and Human Resilience, viewed 18th April 2011
Brown,C. M. C et al. 2006, Trauma, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Burg, A. 2008. The Holocaust is over-We must Rise from Its Ashes. Palgrave Mac Mill, New York, NY.
Caruth, C. 1995, Trauma: explorations in memory, JHU Press, Maryland.
Connor, M. K. 2006, Assessment of Resilience in the Aftermath of Trauma, viewed 18th April 2011 <http://www.psychiatrist.com/supplenet/v67s02/v67s0207.pdf>
Elworthy, S et al. 2006, Making Terrorism History , Demos, London, UK 18-26
Feliciano, V.D. et al. 2008, Trauma, McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, NY.
Flint, L. et al. 2007, Trauma: contemporary principles and therapy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Garland, C. 2000, Understanding Trauma: A Psychoanalytical Approach, Duckworth, London,UK.
Henderson, M. 2009, No Enemy To Conquer-Forgiveness in an unforgiving World. Baylor University Press, Texas, USA.
ITHI. 2004, What is Trauma, viewed 18th April 2011< http://www.traumainstitute.org/trauma.php>
Lederach, P.J. 1997, Building Peace-Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. United States Institute of Peace, Washington DC.
Lederach,P.J et al . 2002. Into the Eye of the Storm-A Handbook of International Peace Building. Jossey Bass, California, CA.
Leys, R. 2000, Trauma: a genealogy, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
McGrath, P. 2009. Trauma, Doubleday, Canada.
Paulson, H.C. 2009, Tropos Therapeutic Center. viewed 18th April 2011
Prince, M. et al, 2004, Trauma: Treatment and Transformation iUniverse, Bloomington, IN.
Roxworthy, E. 2008, The spectacle of Japanese American Trauma, University of Hawaii Press. Hawaii.
Spiers, T. 2002, Trauma: a practitioner’s guide to counseling, Psychology Press, New York, NY.
Vartuli, C et al. 2011, Understanding Trauma: Flight, Fight, And Freeze, viewed 18th April 2011 <http://www.isnare.com/?aid=478326&ca=Advice>
Van der Kolk, A.B. 1987, Psychological Trauma, American Psychiatric Pub, Virginia, VA.
Wilson, C.W. et al. 2007, Trauma: Critical Care, Informa Healthcare. Zug, Switzerland.
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: IT LITERATIVE REVIEW
Overtime Thune has been a marked interest in the use of soft
systems methodology as a means of handling information system problems. However
in this paper a soft systems methodology would be applied in the context of
action research for analyzing a knowledge management problem in a real world
In this case I do understand that implementation success
significantly is dependant on striking the right balance of intervention and
reflection on the prevalent practices of an organization, then I chose soft
systems methodology as it comes in handy as valuably a strategic approach to
conduct a practice driven/based information research.
A case study from a corporate entity is chosen to illustrate
how soft systems methodology can be applied to understand dynamic and complex situations
or as a problem solving strategy for knowledge management.
In any institution or organization, knowledge management
tends to get complex out of the act that it is an issue that involves different
individuals, teams all which impact differently towards the philosophy and the
political economy of that institution or organization. Consequently, researching
this subject can be subjective in that people harbor various world views and cultures
that contribute directly to situations in ways that are not clear cut, a
situation that gives different prospective answers as to what is right. Thus it
is not always producing the exact results.
Thus even though knowledge management ahs been defined
variously by different people and in different contexts, in this research, I
take knowledge management to mean a broad concept that incorporates a wide
range of process knowledge in terms of acquisition, distribution and
application of that knowledge in their day to ay running of the organization.
It is notable that the concept of knowledge management is getting a lot of attention but from scholars and other field practitioners alike thus this paper hopes to find an answer to the issue of research metrologies that are appropriate in knowledge management which can only be achieved by means of a comprehensive review of the past alliterative in knowledge management.
Soft systems metrology, multiple perspectives theory, and knowledge management system hence forth I would like to start by asserting that my choice of soft systems management is based on ability to leverage the potential organizational knowledge due to its support of technology. Since most of the major global organizations tend to focus their attention to the value creation through knowledge leveraging. Such as HP, Xerox, BP and Dell (Housal and Bell),International charities and humanitarian institutions. Yet it no doubt knowledge management is the key to any innovation or discoveries or any make to new knowledge, new inventions. Products, service and solutions since without proper knowledge management, many enterprises are behind to fail or get mediocre outcome.
Thus in my opinion knowledge management as a displine of studies is not an exercise to produce knowledge for the sake of getting more knowledgeable but rather as academic effort to create, disseminate or transfer as well as make use of the research knowledge with the aim of producing and enhancing better objectives.
Again, knowledge management is relatively a new field of interest and it is increasingly growing into the next booming economy thus a study in this field would yield a welcome insights into new dimensions and perspectives in to this new world. For instance faced with an economic recession, everyone is concerned with the prospects of knowledge economy as the new economic frontier thus a lot of studies and research are need to unraveled what this new world holds in store for the world. For instance there is on real data an the kind of restricting that individual, teams, organizations and inter-organizational networks as the kind of renewals that they need to adopt to ensure profitability should they prove to trade their knowledge for higher value on the world wide web.
Another sector that is great need for knowledge management is the automobile industry. This industry is faced with steep diminishing raw materials thus necessitating the need for knowledge management to fine and manage new scopes of design manufacturing, distribution service and support as well as developing knowledge and applying it about their industry, customers partners and stakeholders as their prime strategic assets at the highest factor in the value chain as more of them get open to profitable out searching and other business operations.
The same also applies to other business activities such as the aerospace industry, the oil and gas industry, the information communication technology, the horticulture industry, the health care industry as well as the convention industries.
Thus, in the 21st c knowledge management is assumed the strategic asset if the age and every organization that fights to survive hence no option but to interest in developing ideal strategies for identifying adopting and applying the knowledge management to manage its knowledge needs. Thus this paper is central to any organization that seeks to invest in creating and implementing the best possible practices in knowledge networks, protocols, methodologies appliances and technologies as it will enable the cover the yet to be avid studies findings in learning, creating new knowledge as well as making use of the best of knowledge management.
Also the wide acceptance of soft systems methodology in knowledge management in implementing various strategies varied business sectors largely inform my choice in institutions of higher learning. There in the context of this paper, knowledge management strategy refers to the various potential tactics that can be used to enhance the process of managing organizational knowledge by means of advance soft systems management tools and applications in business or management activities.(Henderson) this is because an appropriate knowledge management system should not only pin point tacit and explicitly of organizational knowledge but rather incorporated the integration of applications and the commensurate technology aided by the convergence of electronic network together with environmental and social networking to see to it that knowledge is stored, disseminated and appropriately applied in an organization.
COMPONENTS OF MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES THEORY
Multiple perspectives theory offers logistic approach in solving area problem and its major elements are technical, organizational and personal mpt is an analytical tool in knowledge management that was introduced to cover issues of knowledge management systems strategy formulation.
This model highlights the illustrated case of social issues in different contexts in relation to technology and its holistic approach helps in implementing knowledge management systems initiatives.
The technical perspective of knowledge management system- this mainly touches on the area of information communication technology that comprises, network infrastructure, intelligent system, technology equipment as well as the internet and intranet tools that back up the implementation of knowledge management system. While the organizational perspective in knowledge management system is the social science and organizational management field that relates to the particular context under study. Its main objective is to identify the ways the said organization manages resources according to stated business objectives and processes that prevail in any given environment in relation to the support of the chosen knowledge management system technology. For instance, it analyses the ability of the organization to make use of knowledge management systems technology to increase performance, improve public perception or relations as well as improve customer service.
OVERVIEW OF SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY
The concept uses system thinking approach to break a system into smaller submits. This enabling one to see the forest and not just the trees in which case one can only understand the particular tree in the forest by loudly understanding the whole components of the forest in relation to the trees. This is made possible by wide application of technology that embodies social complexity on top of the technical issue by means of back room operation driven by technological advancement to support front office activities for decision making purposes. (Check land).
MAIN STUDY VARIABLES IN THE RESEARCH
It is interesting to not that, there was a marked change in the altitude and general behaviour of the stake holders across the board in the course of information communication systems based change in organization the introduction of an all in compassing organization wide intranet system in a us state university administration spurned metaphorical altitudes and inferred behaviour all which was evidenced by use of multiple research methods within the longitudinal case studs.
It was good to see the results showed a transformation caused by the various contextual fact as that led to a shift in the organizational overriding mentality from psychic institution characterized by repression to an organization epitomized by flexibility metaphor.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES IN 55M
The main objective of a soft system methodology is to produce a successful innovative knowledge that is as closely related to the organization understanding as much as possible that can be applied in the stakeholder groups including the organization management or the Polly makers. Thus the model of data collection varies from one organization to the other, for instance large organizations prefer an innovate in house approach thus a choice of linear models innovation is in order, thus multiple models of innovation applicable in each case is always driven and determined by the size of the organization. Therefore small organizations faced with limited resources often network with other to act as their research providers.
In this paper 55m is used to investigate the organizational context understanding by giving a basis for identifying relevant issues, actors, structure and conflict in the problem situation.
The main purpose of data analysis is to reveal the main challenging issues in kms implementation through semi structured interviews of various stakeholders views about kms implementation and knowing the major factors that can lead to the success of their running kms strategy.
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Most of the changes that newborn faces are the same for all family members. These changes include being brought to the world, meeting new parents, and having a new home. There are many things that a newborn experience and most of them are new to them. Each child experiences a different first day in the world. Some newborns experience a healthy start to life with both parents ready to support them, while others it is quite different. As time goes by, newborns form a bond with their parents and primary caregivers. With consistent love and support, the child learns to trust them and form strong bonds. Infants who face neglect, abuse or a lack of support tend to withdraw their trust from the parents and primary caregiver. For mothers, she begins to experience change from the moment she is pregnant. There is a mixture of anxiety and happiness as she waits for the newborn. Providing the mother with the required education of what to expect may help her with the transition. After the child is delivered, the mother may experience a change in hormones in the body. These change in hormones may cause mood swings and depressions. In addition, the mother will face a change in bonding herself with the child. A new mother expects to feel a deep bond with the baby the moment she holds them. In some cases, this appears not to be the case which may lead to frustrations. These situations where the mother does not experience a deep bond may last for days or weeks. This highlights the importance of quality education before and after giving birth. In addition, the mother may need knowledgeable support in case anything arises contrary to the expectations. Another change that the mother can experience is chemical changes in their brains. These chemical changes may lead to some experiences such a change in sleep patterns, emotions, energy levels, and eating habits.
In the same way, fathers also experience various changes. In some cases, fathers may feel disconnected to the pregnancy up until the baby is born. In contrast, other fathers welcome the baby with a lot of excitements. These dads attend classes with the pregnant mother and help them with the birthing process. They also educate themselves on various issues on healthcare and how to support the mother’s needs (Marshall, 2011). At birth, they are well informed about what is expected of them. In the today world, fathers are engaging more in pregnancies than ever. Some concerns for the father are doubting their abilities to raise the child. The changes experienced by the mother due to chemical changes may be alarming to the father. In the case where the mother and the father are separated, the understanding and happenings of the pregnancies may change considerably. Since the mother does not spend time together with the father, the father-infant bond may not develop.
In the case of siblings, they may be thrilled by the prospect of having a new young one in the home. In other cases, siblings feel left which may cause them to be jealous. Also, a new child brings a financial burden to the family. The older children may experience a smaller number of toys and they may not be able to get all the things that they used to get. It is essential for the parents to find a good approach in order to explain to the older siblings. This is possible by finding safe activities for the older siblings to help with. This will allow the entire family to have a strong bond. The extended family reaction and attitude can range from positive to negative. These attitudes will have a great influence on how the extended family will develop the bond. These attitudes will also help parents build their courage on their ability to raise the child. A large group who offer moral support will help the newborn gear up and adapt quickly to the new family. The parents understand that there is available support from the extended family, which boosts their courage.
For the perceptual phase, it is important for the family to understand the visual changes a child phases for the first few years. At the age of 6 months, the child eyesight is about 20/100. Two years later, the child’s vision is about 20/30. By the age of 5 years, the child’s eyesight now adjusts to 20/20 vision (Campbell & Milbourne, 2005). In addition, there many different aspects that impact how a child hears. These aspects also determine whether the child has any hearing problems or not. The parents are encouraged to undertake regular hearing checks which will provide a guide on the hearing progress of the child. During the first few years, the children develop a relationship between their perceptual and motor response. The child becomes comfortable in an area by navigating and holding various objects around them. A child has a strange depth of perception, weight, and space of the world and various objects around them. For instance, young infants who have less experience walking will judge a ditch on the ground wrongly and may end up losing balance. Losing balance may cause them to trip. The experience of tripping helps the child develop a different perception on a ditch. A more experienced walker may see a ditch and stop or adjust the footing to avoid losing balance. It is essential to provide ample space for a child to explore.
For the first year, there is a rapid growth for the child physically. This tends to slow down by the second year. The weight of an infant triples in the first year. For the second year, the infant gains about 5 to 6 pounds. In the first year, the length increases by about 10 to 11 inches and 5 to 6 inches for the second year. By the age of three, the child has more muscle in the body and short rounded shapes begin to change into lean characteristics. This is some of the physical characteristics that can be noted in an infant. The first 2 years of life show the head as large in comparison to the rest of the body. By the age of three years, age is more proportional, which make it easier to walk and navigate. By the age of 1, the infant has teeth growing. During this period, children have about 6 to 8 teeth lacking about 12 of the required milk teeth. The rest of the milk teeth grow by the age of three. There many factors that determine the amount of adipose tissue and fatty tissue children have.
Campbell, P., & Milbourne, S. (2005). Improving the Quality Of Infant—Toddler Care Through Professional Development. Topics In Early Childhood Special Education, 25(1), 3-14. doi: 10.1177/02711214050250010101
Marshall, J. (2011). Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 175-181. doi: 10.1007/s10643-011-0460-2
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My visit was done to the cardiac Centre in a department called the “Nuclear Cardiology Department”. There are a maximum of three staff members in this department and who are concerned with the examination as well as a nurse.
The Protocol Used in the Hospital
The indications of images are as follows: Detection of coronary artery disease, the classification of left ventricular myocardium as normal, irreversibly ischemic, and reversibly ischemic. This also entails detection of the myocardial perfusion abnormalities which are secondary to causes other than coronary artery disease.
The examinations which are undertaken with regard to rest test and stress scans are completed within the same day. The total time allocated for rest acquisition is:
The study requires that the patient have to discontinue all medicines which affect myocardial perfusion. This will enable the success of the study. The discontinuation of all medicines is characterized with limited long acting Beta blockers for at least 48 hours, propranolol for at least 24 hours, and long acting nitrates for at least 4 hours and finally, an hour prohibition of the Nitro-glycerine.
For the patients who are non-diabetic, water is acceptable for consumption and they are as well prohibited from eating and drinking from midnight prior to the study. On the other hand, patients suffering from diabetic are allowed to eat a light meal very early in the morning and take their medicine.
Before the stress acquisition exercise is performed, the patients are required to undergo a tolerant test exercise. It is very vital that the patient accomplishes the maximum amount of exercise that he can safely perform.
The height and weight of the patient should be recorded and in the case of female, the size of the breast should be noted. Recording of this information in each of the cases enables in identifying attenuation artefacts in the tomography images.
It is fundamental that the outlined procedures be indicated to the patients so that they are well aware of what is taking place. In my view, the radiopharmaceutical is Technetium Sestamibi/Cardiolite or Tetrofosmin.
The dose required for rest is 250 MBq while the stress dose is 750 MBq while intravenous is the technique of administration.
The image processing;
The imaging processing is performed in two ways, analysis as well as display. After the patients name have been chosen, the row data is then started. One is then required to choose an area of interest for instance the heart and it is important that a part of the heart is not chopped or cut off. After the orientation is done, the short and long axis are chosen to convert them to display the parts with different views
It has done in two parts, analysis and display. They chose the patient name then they start with row data. Chose the area of interest ‘heart’ and make sure we didn’t cut part from the heart. after that the reorientation they chose the axis short and long to convert them to display part with 3 views, short axis, horizontal axis and vertical axis.
They can calculate the ‘EF’ ejection fraction which calculated by using Cardiac packages QPS AND QGS.
QGS: quantitative gated SPECT provide cardiac function quantitation using perfusion datasets:ED and ES volumes, ejection fraction. The image data can be viewed in a variety of modes, from selected slices in 2D view to a rendered 3D surface of the myocardium with function maps (perfusion, motion, thickening and regional EF).
QPS: quantitative perfusion SPECT is an interactive atand-alone application for the automatic segmentation, quantification, analysis and display of static (ungated) short axis myocardial perfusion SPECT images. QPS provides automatic computation of functional metrics including LV chamber volume and mid-myocardial surface area and generation of stress, rest and reversibility surfaces and Polar Maps. These Polar maps are displayed in parametric fashion, the pattern of LV myocardial perfusion.
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Eating Disorders and the College food scene
Part Two: Summary of the article
Does the corridor of college life subject us to health dangers? That is a question majority of us, both men and women of good will and the laity at large ask. This can be the scene realized with the case of Yochelson and who came to Bethsaida with high hope after recovery from anorexia nervosa. It is true that being affected by anorexia at a tender age can be very stressing owning to the fact that people tend to have a long life ahead (Huget, 2011). The following instances of Yochelson life reflects how she was deprived of the necessary support that should come with community care. The concept of being open and sharing our problems with others can always expose us to help from other and those we live with.
Its unfortunate Yochelson had to leave school due to lack of support that was not offered due to lack of cooperation from her. This fact is illustrated by the fact that she believes that should openness have prevailed in her situation, and then her conditioned might have been salvaged. The school administration can also be noted as not being aware of her condition and also the presence of services that have not been made aware to the students (Huget, 2011). The School could have assisted through the counseling center and which Yochelson did not seek help.
In an age when technology is being used to assist several dynamics, the campus can be congratulated in setting up the centers which can aid those who are suffering from psychological problems. However, the duration upon which Yochelson was undergoing the ailment, the wellness centre did not seem to cater for her problems. We can as well assert that lack of awareness on the part of the administration could have led to Yochelson not admitting her problems (Huget, 2011). It is also true that students should not sit back with any kind of difficulty without sharing. Those having eating disorders should not shy away as was experienced by Yochelson.
Part Four: Critique of the Article
The author deserves to be commended for the work she has emphasized on about the life of college students and eating disorders. As mentioned earlier on, we can conclude that walking in college life can be the result of our mental difficulty through the type of food we consumer while there (Huget, 2011). Many people and more so those in college and university life can disagree with the author over the issue but the fact remains that eating disorders are much prevalent among college students.
Young age and more so that epitomized by young people tend to shy away from issues that can help them through their hard times. People who are not willing to share any type of hardship cannot be assisted and they are the ones who can run from situations like was the case with Yochelson. The author also illustrates that the school should create awareness on the wellness facilities that are present within their institutions (Huget, 2011). The situation however could not have been helped much with the American University being left without a clue over the student’s situation. Eating disorders is indeed real among students in learning institutions and this can be well indicated by the fast way of life and a world on the move. The students, as noted by the author, should take advantage of wellness centre’s that exist within their institutions. The administration of these learning environment must as well create awareness avenues for the students to seek the psychological help when need arises.
Huget, L. J. (2011). Lifestyle: Eating disorders and college food scene. Retrieved 28th June 2011
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The United Arab Emirates, popularly referred to as the UAE, is a young country with vibrant economy. Higher educational institutions in the country were first geared towards vocational training and as a result, Colleges of Technology were opened in 1988. ICT has also been uplifted in UAE schools following the education reforms announced by ADEC in 2006. It can therefore be concluded that some of the most promising and innovative practices in the education sector in UAE involves technology. Firms as well as several corporations have not been left behind as they try to align with the changing times of technology. The paper aims at addressing the given concepts that are being used towards improving technology in the United Arab Emirates. In an emerging economy like that of UAE, investors are continuously coming in hence suggesting a high competitive arena. This can as well be boosted by various companies keeping in touch with changes in technology.
Improving Technology in Operational Management
Most Middle East countries are recording an increasing growth rate in using the internet. This is a sign that challenges in terms of technological expertise will be realized. However, it is important to point out that there has been slow progress in the rate of investing in technology sector. In order to lift the technological capability of the UAE, it will be necessary to make considerable financial as well as resource investment. This will also be followed up by the introduction of policy changes that entail innovation strategies.
Innovation and divides
As changes in technology continue to materialize, government officials as well as corporate institutions are advancing on the need to refer to the reliable and timely data so as to be able to asses and modify given data. Towards this cause, it will be necessary to monitor and evaluate e-strategies towards financing initiatives.
Renewing the record of producing and exporting ICT products
Following a report released by the UN commission, it was found that UAE has a poor record for the production as well as exporting of ICT products and services. It is therefore important, in order to improve operational management through technology, to develop a strong official support in the technology sector. Major companies employing the services of technology should focus on investing on new and emerging technology.
Improving ICT legislation & regulations
Another aspect that ought to be considered in the UAE towards improving technology will be to enact the ICT legislation, regulations as well as enforcements. This is because the United Arab Emirates have limitations in the laws that protect consumer’s confidential information and privacy. This is also seen in the national copyright as well as intellectual property laws which are poorly enforced. There should be in place adequate regulatory structures that will govern telecommunications and the internet.
Legal and regulatory Issues
The environment in the United Arab Emirates is characterized with underdeveloped legal and regulatory system that presents obstacles the development and innovation of technology. The local demands in operational management in the United Arab Emirates have not been met due to several reasons. One such factor is the creation of the intellectual property’s rights and the ICT sector which have been directed towards meeting the international demands. This has left local business being left unattended. Most countries in the Middle East are not keen on enacting laws and regulations that will render information secure. The United Arab Emirates should therefore respond to the demands of privacy to information by creating an environment where such laws exist. The government of UAE in conjunction with the private sector should create avenues where there is a high level of IP protection and enforcement. Furthermore, consumer privacy in UAE must be focused upon so as to improve the level of technology.
UAE must on a continuous basis combine new regulations offered by the United Nations with the local qualifications. Laws must be passed for instance, the Cyber Crime Law that focuses on fighting those who misuse cyber space and the emerging technology. Legislation must also be directed towards privacy, jurisdiction, data protection and the domain names so as to improve on operational management in the United Arab Emirates.
Personal Computers penetration and digital content
The rates at which personal computers are penetrating into operational management in the United Arab Emirates are still very low. Citizens’ should be encouraged to buy more personal computers to boost operational management. This will be seen as encouraging and boosting the rate at which work is accomplished. Awareness should be created by the government to encourage more users of personal computers and also provide internet services which are easily affordable by all. This is also seen as limiting the level of marketing when it comes to Web page marketing. One option that should be developed to effectively use technology and improve its usage is through gaining access to computers and making good use of them.
E-Commerce must also be improved to limit the low rates that have been recorded in the country. Operational management can be made easier if communication link between businesses to business is effective. This is enabled through developing an E-commerce activity. Companies must therefore be encouraged to device online marketing and trading so as to boost this concept towards improving technology in the country. The government should also move increasing amounts of tender offer as well as payments activities online. This will encourage more users to be well informed on the changing faces of technology.
Majority of Business people in the United Arab Emirates should develop a culture where they appreciate the advent of technology. This is why they have not yet gained an insight on the profits that can be brought through applying ICT to business. An alliance should be formed between the business sector and the government of United Arab Emirates. It should be incumbent for the government to create awareness that will increase the number of regional institutions that use the internet in their daily operations. Companies must also be flexible towards migration to online purchase and sales transactions. There should be mechanism in place that will create legal framework that protects e-commerce in the various companies in operation within the United Arab Emirates.
The United Arab Emirates should effectively enhance the provisions of services and information to its citizens via the e-government. Registrations and other forms of service delivery should be encouraged through the e-government. These might include the use of smart cards during shopping ventures, biometrics and public key infrastructures.
In order to improve on technology and result in the flourishing of the economy, there is need to develop innovations. A strong commitment on the part of private sectors as well as the government in innovation will lead to improved ties in promoting technology. Resources towards implementing technology should be availed for its lack has led to a major challenge towards innovation. Organizations are also advised to avoid being too rigid for this is another way that hinders prosperity of technology. The market condition in the country should enhance an enabling environment where prosperity of technology might thrive. It is also important to indicate that provision of a market data and analysis in regard to trends will determine how technology is perceived with the dispatch of information.
As have been earlier mentioned, it is important that the delivery of education on emerging technology be incorporated in the syllabus. Young men and women must get conversed with technology at an early stage to avoid the system being taken out through irrelevance. This can be enhanced through the public-private partnership. The education system should also unleash the innovation of students as well as teachers by effectively using the ICT system. The capacity of the local ICT industry should be increased to cater for increasing demands through learning and business. As part of the education reforms, a system that will be emulated with other developing nations should be put in place. This will enable an exchange program that will promote the ICT sector and as a result, boost the level of operation in institutions.
The Paper has presented the various ways through which technology can be improved in the United Arab Emirates. This encompassed by several other factors gears towards improving the level through which communication is made. It has also outlined the various steps that the government should undertake towards the same course.
Dutta, S et al. (2011). Promoting Technology and Innovation: Recommendations to Improve Arab ICT Competitiveness. Retrieved 15th June 2011
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How America became a world power, between1890 – 1974
In the early 1890’s, major countries like the United Kingdom and Germany were gaining control over countries in Africa. In the United States, things were different. They were not interested in gaining power through colonizing people with various cultures, languages and religions. The United States through an older generation of moralists viewed that ruling other countries without gaining their consent violated their republicanism (Mandelbaum). They wanted to focus on uplifting societies that were backward.
The United States wanted to become naval power through replacing its wooden sailing ships with those of steel vessels that were powered by oil or even coal in 1883. The United States viewed that in order to control the seas; they had to acquire the naval bases as well as coaling stations. While various countries from Europe were engaged in power struggles over colonies, America was domestically positioning itself so as not to be closed out in the struggle for global markets and raw materials (Digital History). In the 1890’s., America witnessed half of its petroleum and a quarter of the nation’s farm being sold overseas.
The United States gained global support over their derived policy to uplift people who were still backward. This initiative was supported by mainstream protestant Churches who begun establishing missions in Asia and Africa. China for instance, had over 500 missions by 1890. The policy makers in America started displaying assertiveness. This was also witnessed by America being involved in overthrowing the monarchy in Hawaii in 1893 (Digital History). From this annexation of the Hawaiian monarchy, debate started on whether America should begin colonizing other nations.
It also came close to declaring war over Germany due to the way they were handling Samoa in 1889. America also retrieved from declaring war with Britain when the British were involved in a territorial dispute with Venezuela (Fry). All these pointed on how America started emerging as a world super power though they were not interested in colonizing other countries, but focusing on improving their economy to be self dependant.
Digital History. The United States Becomes a World Power. 2011. 13th June 2011
Fry, H.E. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. University of Toronto Press. New York. 2010.
Mandelbaum, M. The Frugal Superpower: America’s Global Leadership in a Cash-Strapped Era. Public Affairs. New York, 2010
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